Analysis of Error in Using Simplified Models to Approximate the Heating or Cooling Output of Fan Coil Units for Energy Cost Allocation Purposes
This paper assesses how well various simple linear models approximate the true relative heating or cooling output of fan coil units under various ranges of application conditions. It further assesses the improvement possible in using non-linear models that follow the known form of the heat transfer relationship.
Field Measurements of Off-Cycle Losses and Seasonal Efficiency for Major Classes of Multifamily Boilers
For multifamily buildings, space heating improvements offer one of the best potentials for saving energy. However, the energy savings and cost-effectiveness of space heating retrofits and boiler replacements depend critically on the efficiency of the existing boiler.
Supermarket Refrigeration Market Assessment
The overall goal of this project was to assist Northern States Power Company in updating and expanding their C&I refrigeration rebate program by identifying technologies which have good potential to reduce demand and/or energy use, but are not currently widely implemented.
Improving Cooling Equipment for the Small Commercial Buildings Market
This report examines the importance of various types and sizes of cooling equipment in the small commercial market, the availability and incremental cost of efficient commercial cooling equipment, and recent developments in codes, standards and utility demand side management programs for commercial cooling.
Lighting Efficiency in New Small Commercial Construction in Minnesota
The study looked at the number of buildings that actually complied with the "1989" and "1993" Code of Federal Regulations requirements, and the incremental costs and savings associated with installing state-of-the-art lighting equipment.
Transferring Effective Multifamily Energy Programs to Communities in Greater Minnesota
The purpose of the Multifamily Technology Transfer Project was to ensure implementation of proven energy efficiency improvements in multifamily buildings in greater Minnesota.
An Evaluation of Energy Program Needs For Minnesota Non Profit Organizations
The McKnight Foundation retained the Center for Energy and the Urban Environment (CEUE) to survey their recent grant recipients about their level of familiarity and concern regarding energy efficiency issues and about any efficiency measures or programs they had already implemented or were considering implementing.
Measured Savings from Integral Flue Dampers and Thermal Vent Dampers on Domestic Hot Water Heaters in Multifamily Buildings
This research was undertaken to further investigate the benefits of using an integral flue damper versus a thermal vent damper on commercial tank-type water heaters.
Measured Savings from High Efficiency Replacement Tank-Type Domestic Hot Water Heaters in Multifamily Buildings
In order to measure savings and assess performance of the "best available technology" for this application, high efficiency condensing tank-type water heaters were installed in parallel with existing conventional tank-type DHW heaters in two apartment buildings.
Measured Savings from Domestic Hot Water Control Strategies in Multifamily Buildings with Recirculation Loops
To investigate the strategy of reducing system temperatures during periods of low demand, time-based and demand-based temperature controls were installed in three apartment buildings.